You can make it easier for other researches to refer to your research or to use your research data by sharing your data with others.
There are a number of aspects to consider when sharing your data, which you can read more about below.
When choosing how to store, share or publish data, it is important to be aware of the ethical aspects.
When research involves people as participants, it is important that it is conducted with respect for the individual’s dignity, rights and well-being and in a way that minimises risks for participants, researchers, third parties and the Faculty.
Personally sensitive data in research projects has to be registered by the Faculty. Contact Research Support.
Personally sensitive data must be stored in a particularly secure way. Read about storage of data.
The faculty’s Research Ethics Committee provides advice on ethical aspects and has made guidelines, which are available on the committee’s website. The Research Ethics Committee works, not exclusively, as an Institutional Review Board (IRB) in cases where you have to document the institution’s approval of the ethical aspects of your application.
Anonymise your personally sensitive data before publication
Usually, it is necessary to anonymise personally sensitive data before publication. Anonymisation means removal of information that makes it possible to identify individuals. This is to ensure the individual’s anonymity after any potential merging with other data sets.
Pseudonymisation is not anonymization! The term ‘pseudonymisation’ means that, in the data, a person is referred to via a pseudonym, e.g. a number or a code. Pseudonymisation can be used to implement appropriate security measures for restricting access to personal information. Doing so can be relevant when processing high-risk data, e.g. processing sensitive information on a larger scale.
- Contact the Research Ethics Committee
Contact the Faculty of Humanities’ Research Support if you have questions regarding the committee.
- Storage of personally sensitive data
Read about guidelines and possibilities for storage of personally sensitive data.
Read more about anonymisation on the Danish Data Protection Agency’s website or contact firstname.lastname@example.org if you have questions about anonymization.
The FAIR principles (Finable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) were set out in 2016 and focus on the EU’s goal of increasing sharing and reusing of research data. The four principles can generally be laid out as such:
- Findable: Research data must be findable for other researchers, it must have its related metadata and it must have a unique, Persistent Identifier (PID) in order to make it re-findable and to ensure the possibility of referring to your data consistently.
- Accessible: Data and its metadata must be understandable for people and computers. It should be accessible in a well-described way, e.g. by being included in an approved data repository. The license conditions for the data should be made clear and should be as open as possible.
- Interoperable: The data should be made as reusable as possible, e.g. by using approved standards for data formats, by using open file formats for the data or by sharing data by way of a standardised communications protocol. You can use approved methods for data collecting and approved ontologies in the description of the data.
- Reusable: The data’s origin should be described in order to make it clear how the data has been collected and processed. The license conditions make it possible to reuse data, e.g. after a reasonable embargo period. It is also important to describe the data’s quality standards.
You should try to make your generated research data as FAIR as possible; “as open as possible, as closed as necessary”:
- Article: The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship.
- Short description of the FAIR data principles.
- The H2020 program’s guidelines for data management
- The Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education’s preliminary analysis of the implementation of FAIR data in Denmark.
Sharing your data
When you want to share your research data with researchers outside the University, you should put it in an approved data repository, which can give your data a so-called Persistent Identifier (PID) to make it easy to refer to your data from your publications or elsewhere.
You should give though to choosing the right data repository for your data. UCPH offers a general data repository with an assignment of a PID to your data set. If your research environment/subject area or your collaborators use a different data repository, placing your data in a specialised data repository can enhance your data’s visibility.
Consider the individual data repositories’ offered guarantees for storage, duration and license conditions when choosing where to place your data.
Your data needs a metadata description when you want to share them. The individual data repositories set the framework for attaching metadata to the data.
Examples of data repositories
- UCPH’s DataCite data repository is expected to launch this summer.
- About.zenodo.org (for all types of data, run by CERN)
The list is updated continuously. Contact email@example.com if you have any suggestions or questions.
Ownership and licenses
Ownership of the research data should be agreed upon when a research projects begins. Ownership influences the IPR-rights, where the data can be stored and how the data can be publicised and shared. Ownership can be unclear if the project involves:
Both researchers and students
Requirements from the supplier of funding
Collaboration with or funding from commercial partners
At UCPH, the following general rules apply:
- Research data produced while employed at UCPH belongs to UCPH, but UCPH gives the researcher royalty-free, non-exclusive rights to use the data for research and teaching purposes. This means that you can take a copy of your data with you if you are no longer employed at UCPH.
- Research data produced while enrolled as a student at UCPH belongs to the student.
When publishing or sharing your data with partners outside of UCPH, you have to attach a license. If it does not conflict with collaboration agreements or obligations, you should choose a license as open as possible. You could, for instance, use Creative Common’s Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike License 4.0 CC BY-NC-SA.
- Attribution (BY): Credit
- NonCommercial(NC): Non-commercial
- ShareAlike(SA): Share on common conditions
Identification of data: PID
When you want to publish your data, it is good practice to attach a unique and consistent identifier, a so-called Persistent Identifier (PID), to your data. A PID is used to identify a digital object, e.g. a document or a data file and works by containing a link to a shared site or system currently holding your data.
The PID will not be assigned until the data is ready for publication and in a form that will not change any further. This can become relevant when you publish an article and want to cite your data in the article or if the supplier of funding requires that the data be made available to others.
The PID is a registration of the current location of your data and a PID can ensure that everyone can find the actual location of your data by addressing the PID. If you, at a later time, move your data or if the URL changes, you can register that the data’s destination has changed in the PID service.
There are several different systems for handling PIDs, e.g. handle.net, EPIC, DOI, DataCite. The data repository you choose for publishing your data will usually also assign a PID to your data.
DataCite is a way of registering a Persistent ID (PID) for your data. UCPH IT is working on a system that makes it easy to request a PID through DataCite and to archive data in a lasting way at the same time.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a way of giving your data a Persistent ID (PID). DOI can be a good choice if your collaborators use DOI. Please note that UCPH offers a system that assigns a DataCite PID to your data.
Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) was launched in 2012 and is a lasting ID code that can be assigned to researchers.
ORCID is a unique code that researchers can create so they can be identified individually in the event of name changes, shifts in institutions, name coincidences or if a name is shortened in multiple different ways. ORCID deals with the fact that personal names often are not unique and can vary over time. With an ORCID, it becomes easier to find all publications from one specific researcher.
As a researcher at UCPH, you can register your ORCID with CURIS. Your publications will be gathered for inclusion in, among others, the Danish National Research Database, where it is possible to search for all publications from one specific researcher by name or ORCID.
- See more information about ORCID.
- Read about creating an ORCID.